Среда, 07 Декабря 2016 года.
В нашем информационном справочнике представлены фирмы (организации и предприятия) России, Казахстана, а так же Украины. На страницах нашего сайта вы сможете найти всю интересующую вас информацию по любой из представленных фирм, а конкретней: адреса и контактные данные, расположение на карте, интересные предложения от ведущих компаний и конечно же отзывы об организациях.

Возник вопрос по содержанию отчёта?

Задайте его! Персональный менеджер свяжется с Вами и поможет решить любую задачу

Найти исследование

Бесплатная аналитика

Residential real estate and Russian market of residential real estate. Current situation and forecast (артикул: 15640 27470)

Дата выхода отчета: 11 Января 2013
География исследования: Россия
Период исследования:  
Количество страниц: 153
Язык отчета: Русский
Способ предоставления: электронный

Вы можете заказать данный отчёт в режиме on-line прямо сейчас, заполнив небольшую форму регистрации. Заказ отчёта не обязывает к его покупке. После получения заказа на отчёт с Вами свяжется наш менеджер.

Не нашли подходящее исследование?

Если данный отчёт Вам не подходит, Вы можете:

  • 1. Заказать обновление с уточнением структуры отчёта
  • 2. по Вашей теме
  • 3. по Вашей теме
  • Полное описание отчета

    Subject of research: RUSSIAN MARKET OF RESIDENTIAL REAL ESTATE

    Goal of research: EVALUATION OF THE MARKET AND FORECAST OF ITS DEVELOPMENT FOR 2013-2015

    Regions of research: RUSSIA AND REGIONS OF RF

    MAIN BLOCKS OF RESEARCH:

    MARKET VOLUME

    TENDENCIES IN THE MARKET OF RESIDENTIAL REAL ESTATE

    STATE REGULATION OF RESIDENTIAL REAL ESTATE MARKET

    INVESTMENT IN CONSTRUCTION

    PRIMARY AND SECONDARY MARKET OF RESIDENTIAL REAL ESTATE

    MAJOR PLAYERS IN THE MARKET OF RESIDENTIAL REAL ESTATE

    PRICES IN THE MARKET OF RESIDENTIAL REAL ESTATE

    FACTORS INFLUENCING THE MARKET OF RESIDENTIAL REAL ESTATE

    PROFILES OF THE LARGEST CONSTRUCTION COMPANIES

    Profiles are made for the following largest Russian enterprises:

    “СУ-155” CJSC

    “GROUP OF COMPANIES PIK” OJSC

    “MORTON-RSO” LLC

    “GLAVSTROY” OJSC

    “DON-STROY INVEST” CJSC

    “INTEKO” CJSC

    Information about the main enterprises’ production volume, financials of activity, balance sheet, profit and loss statements, cash flow statements, subsidiaries and some other information is also presented.

    The sources of information, which are used in the research:

    Federal State Statistics Service

    Federal Tax Service

    Ministry of Regional Development of RF

    Industry experts’ estimates

    Data of the main players of the branch

    Printed and electronic publications of the branch

    The research contains 48 schedules, 6 diagrams, 68 tables and 3 schemes.

    EXTRACTS FROM RESEARCH

    PRIMARY AND SECONDARY MARKET OF RESIDENTIAL REAL ESTATE
    There was an increase in the volume of residential buildings from 2006 to 2008 in the primary market of residential real estate. In 2009 *** mln. sq. m. of residential buildings were commissioned opposite *** mln. sq. m. in 2008, the number decreasing by **%. In 2010 the decline in construction volumes of residential real estate continued (by **%). The negative dynamics turned into a positive one in 2011, when *** mln. sq. m. of residential buildings were commissioned, that is by ***% more than that of 2010, but the pre-crisis level has not been achieved.

    In 2011 the Central FD accounted for almost one third of the total volume of commissioned residential buildings (**%).One fifth was occupied by residential real estate in the Volga FD (**%).The number in the Siberian, Southern and Northwestern FDs was **%, **% and **% respectively. 

    PRICES IN THE MARKET OF RESIDENTIAL REAL ESTATE
    In 2006-2008 an increase in the average price for all types of apartments was observed in the primary market or real estate. In 2008 it amounted to *** rub./sq. m. In 2009 the average price started declining due to the economic crisis, having amounted to *** rub./sq. m. In 2010 this trend continued, the index number decreased by **%, in 2011 - by **%.

    According to Intesco Research Group estimations, in 2012 the average price for all apartments of all types in the primary market of residential real estate will amount to *** rub./sq. m, that will succeed the index of 2011 by **%.

    In 2007-2008 there was a gradual increase in the dynamics of average prices for apartments of all types by quarters. However, in the first quarter of 2009 there was a tendency to decreasing. The index stagnation was recorded during 2010. A positive dynamics appeared in the second quarter of 2011, that continued up to the third quarter of 2012. 

  • Подробное оглавление/содержание отчёта

    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY. LIST OF SCHEDULES, DIAGRAMS, TABLES AND SCHEMES

    1. GENERAL ECONOMIC SITUATION IN RUSSIA

    1.1. Population in Russia

    Population size

    The largest cities

    Social standard of living

    Economic activity

    1.2. Economic situation

    Dynamics of economic development

    Stability of state budget

    1.3. International Russian position

    RF share in the population of the world

    2. SUBJECT OF RESEARCH

    2.1. Characterization of market of residential real estate

    2.2. Classification of residential real estate market

    2.3. Classification of residential real estate by main items

    Elite real estate

    Enhanced comfort housing (business class)

    Typical housing

    Low-rank housing

    2.4. Classification by territorial and administrative characteristics

    2.5. Classification by construction material

    2.6. Classification as per All-Russian Classification of Products on types of economic activities

    3. RESIDENTIAL REAL ESTATE MARKET

    3.1. Volume and growth rate of commissioned buildings

    3.2. Structure of commissioned buildings

    3.3. Individual housing construction

    4. TENDENCIES IN THE MARKET OF RESIDENTIAL REAL ESTATE

    5. STATE REGULATION OF RESIDENTIAL REAL ESTATE MARKET

    6. INVESTMENT IN CONSTRUCTION

    6.1. The level of investment in the construction of houses

    Dynamics by years

    Dynamics by quarters

    6.2. Volume of foreign investment

    Dynamics of years

    Dynamics by quarters

    Foreign investment volume by countries

    7. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY MARKET OF RESIDENTIAL REAL ESTATE

    7.1. Primary market of residential real estate

    7.2. Secondary market of residential real estate

    8. MAJOR PLAYERS IN THE MARKET OF RESIDENTIAL REAL ESTATE

    9. PRICES IN THE MARKET OF RESIDENTIAL REAL ESTATE

    9.1. Prices in the primary market

    Apartments of all types

    Economy-class apartments (medium quality)

    Business class apartments (improved quality)

    Elite apartments

    9.2. Prices in the secondary market

    Apartments of all types

    Economy-class apartments (medium quality and low-rank)

    Business class apartments (improved quality)

    Elite apartments

    9.3. Average actual price for construction of detached houses with no extensions, add-ons and built-in premises

    10. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE MARKET OF RESIDENTIAL REAL ESTATE

    10.1. Factors influencing the market of real estate

    10.2. Factors affecting the market price of residential real estate

    11. PROFILES OF THE LARGEST CONSTRUCTION COMPANIES

    11.1. “SU-155” CJSC

    Reference information

    Types of activity

    Balance sheet

    Profit and loss statement

    Cash flow statement

    Financials of activity

    11.2. “GROUP OF COMPANIES PIK” OJSC

    Reference information

    Types of activity

    Balance sheet

    Profit and loss statement

    Cash flow statement

    Financials of activity

    11.3. “MORTON-RSO” LLC

    Reference information

    Types of activity

    Balance sheet

    Profit and loss statement

    Financials of activity

    11.4. “Glavstroy” OJSC

    Reference information

    Types of activity

    Balance sheet

    Profit and loss statement

    Financials of activity

    11.5. “DON-STROY INVEST” CJSC

    Reference information

    Types of activity

    Balance sheet

    Profit and loss statement

    Financials of activity

    11.6. “INTEKO” CJSC

    Reference information

    Types of activity

    Balance sheet

    Profit and loss statement

    Cash flow statement

    Financials of activity

    12. DEVELOPMENTAL FORECAST OF THE RUSSIAN MARKET OF RESIDENTIAL REAL ESTATE IN 2013-2015

    ABOUT INTESCO RESEARCH GROUP

  • Перечень приложений

    List of schedules:

    1. Population in Russia in 2000, 2005, 2010 and its forecast for 2015 and 2020, ths. peop.

    2. Dynamics of actual disposable money profit and its annual growth rate in 2000-2011*, %

    3. Forecast of dependency ratio in Russia in 2011-2031

    4. Dynamics of employed and unemployed population number in RF in 2006-2010, ths. people

    5. Dynamics of unemployed population number in economically active population by federal districts of RF in 2006-2010, %

    6. Dynamics of RF GDP in the prices of 2008 in 2001-2011, bln. rub.

    7. Fixed capital investment in RF in 2002-2011

    8. Fulfilled consolidated budget surplus/deficit in RF in 2006-2011*, %

    9. Dynamics of RF total external debt and its GDP share in 2001-2011*

    10. Dynamics of Russian external debt by main sectors in 2001-2010, %

    11. Consumer price index in RF in 2001-2011, %

    12. RF share in the population of the world in 2000-2010 and its forecast up to 2100

    13. RF share in the world GDP in 2001-2011 and its forecast for 2012-2016, %

    14. Dynamics of housing stock volume and residential building commissioning in 2005-2012*, mln. sq. m.

    15. Dynamics of individual building commissioning, constructed by population at their own expense and on credit in 2005-2012*, mln. sq. m.

    16. Dynamics of investment volume in construction of residential buildings in 2005-2012*, bln. rub.

    17. Dynamics of investment volume in construction of residential buildings by quarters in 2009-June 2012, bln. rub.

    18. Dynamics of foreign investment in construction of residential buildings in 2005-March 2012, mln. rub.

    19. Dynamics of foreign investment volume in construction of residential buildings by quarters in 2009-March 2012, mln. rub.

    20. Dynamics of residential building commissioning in 2005-2011, mln. sq. m.

    21. Dynamics of residential building commissioning by months in 2007-2010, mln. sq. m.

    22. Volumes of residential building commissioning by federal districts of RF in 2011, ths. sq. m.

    23. Volumes of residential building commissioning by regions of RF in 2011, ths. sq. m.

    24. Volume of residential buildings under construction in 2005-2011, mln. sq. m.

    25. Volume of the Russian housing stock in 2005-2012*, mln. sq. m.

    26. Dynamics of volumes of dilapidated and hazardous housing stock, residential building commissioning and their disposal on decay and breakdown in 2005-2011, mln. sq. m.

    27. Dynamics of average prices for apartments in the primary market of real estate in 2005-2012*, rub./sq. m.

    28. Dynamics of average prices for apartments in the primary market of real estate by quarters in 2007-September 2012, rub./sq. m.

    29. Dynamics of average prices for medium quality (typical) apartments in the primary market or real estate in 2005-2012*, rub./sq. m.

    30. Dynamics of average prices for medium quality (typical) apartments in the primary market of real estate by quarters in 2007-September 2012, rub./sq. m.

    31. Dynamics of average prices for improved quality apartments in the primary market of real estate in 2005-2012*, rub./sq. m.

    32. Dynamics of average prices for improved quality apartments in the primary market of real estate by quarters in 2007-September 2012, rub./sq. m.

    33. Dynamics of average prices for elite apartments in the primary market of real estate in 2005-2012*, rub./sq. m.

    34. Dynamics of average prices for elite apartments in the primary market of real estate by quarters in 2007-September 2012, rub./sq. m.

    35. Dynamics of average prices for apartments in the secondary market of real estate in 2005-2012*, rub./sq. m.

    36. Dynamics of average prices for apartments in the secondary market of real estate by quarters in 2007-September 2012, rub./sq. m.

    37. Dynamics of average prices for medium quality (typical) apartments in the secondary market of real estate in 2005-2012*, rub./sq. m.

    38. Dynamics of average prices for medium quality (typical) apartments in the secondary market of real estate by quarters in 2007-September 2012, rub./sq. m.

    39. Dynamics of average prices for low-rank apartments in the secondary market of real estate in 2005-2012*, rub./sq. m.

    40. Dynamics of average prices for low-rank apartments in the secondary market of real estate by quarters in 2007-September 2012, rub./sq. m.

    41. Dynamics of average prices for improved quality apartments in the secondary market of real estate in 2005-2012*, rub./sq. m.

    42. Dynamics of average prices for improved quality apartments in the secondary market of real estate by quarters in 2007-September 2012, rub./sq. m.

    43. Dynamics of average prices for elite apartments in the secondary market of real estate in 2005-2012*, rub./sq. m.

    44. Dynamics of average prices for elite apartments in the secondary market of real estate by quarters in 2007-September 2012, rub./sq. m.

    45. Dynamics of average actual price for construction of detached houses with no extensions, add-ons and built-in premises in 2007-2011, rub./sq. m.

    46. Dynamics of residential building commissioning and dynamics of residential loans granted by credit institutions to individuals in 2005-2011

    47. Dynamics of residential building commissioning in 2007-2011 and its forecast for 2012 2015, mln. sq. m.

    48. Dynamics of average prices for apartments in the primary market of real estate in 2007-2011 and their forecast for 2012-2015, ths. rub./sq. m.

    List of diagrams:

    1. Structure of residential building commissioning by organizations of various forms of ownership in 2005-2011, %

    2. Structure of residential building commissioning in cities, urban villages and villages in 2005-2011, %

    3. Structure of residential building commissioning by federal districts of RF in 2011, %

    4. Changes in the structure of residential building commissioning by federal districts of RF, %

    5. Regional structure of residential building commissioning in 2011, %

    6. Changes in the regional structure of residential building commissioning, %

    List of tables:

    1. Population of the largest Russian cities according to the National Census in 2010, ths. peop.

    2. Volume of residential building commissioning by organizations of various forms of ownership in 2005-2011, mln. sq. m.

    3. Investment volumes in construction of residential buildings by quarters in 2009-June 2012, bln. rub.

    4. Foreign investment volume in construction of residential buildings by quarters in 2009-June 2012, mln. rub.

    5. Foreign investment volume in construction of residential buildings by countries in 2007-March 2012, mln. rub.

    6. Volume of residential building commissioning by months in 2007-2012, mln. sq. m.

    7. Volume of residential building commissioning in cities, urban villages and villages in 2005-2011, mln. sq. m.

    8. Volumes of residential building commissioning by federal districts in 2005-2011, ths. sq. m.

    9. Volumes of residential building commissioning by regions of RF in 2005-2011, ths. sq. m.

    10. Average prices for apartments in the primary real estate market in 2005-2011, rub./sq. m.

    11. Average prices for apartments in the primary market of real estate by quarters in 2007 September 2012, rub./sq. m.

    12. Average prices for apartments in the primary market of real estate by federal districts of RF in 2007-September 2012, rub./sq. m.

    13. Average prices in the primary market of real estate by regions of RF in 2007-September 2012, rub. sq. m.

    14. Average prices for medium quality (typical) apartments in the primary market of real estate by quarters in 2007-September 2012, rub./sq. m.

    15.Average prices for medium quality (typical) apartments in the primary market of real estate by federal districts of RF in 2007-September 2012, rub./sq. m.

    16.Average prices for medium quality (typical) apartments in the primary market of real estate by regions of RF in 2007-September 2012, rub./sq. m.

    17.Average prices for improved quality apartments in the primary market of real estate by quarters in 2007-September 2012, rub./sq. m.

    18.Average prices for improved quality apartments in the primary market of real estate by federal districts of RF in 2007-September 2012, rub./sq. m.

    19. Average prices for improved quality apartments in the primary market of real estate by regions of RF in 2007-September 2012, rub./sq. m.

    20. Average prices for elite apartments in the primary market of real estate by quarters in 2007-September 2012, rub./sq. m.

    21.Average prices for elite apartments in the primary market of real estate by federal districts of RF in 2007-September 2012, rub./sq. m.

    22.Average prices for elite apartments in the primary market of real estate by regions of RF in 2007-September 2012, rub./sq. m.

    23.Average prices for apartments in the secondary market of real estate in 2005-September 2012, rub./sq. m.

    24. Average prices for apartments in the secondary market of real estate by quarters in 2007-September 2012, rub./sq. m.

    25.Average prices for apartments in the secondary market of real estate by federal districts of RF in 2007-September 2012, rub./sq. m.

    26. Average prices for apartments in the secondary market of real estate by regions of RF in 2007-September 2012, rub./sq. m.

    27. Average prices for medium quality (typical) apartments in the secondary market of real estate by quarters in 2007-September 2012, rub./sq. m.

    28.Average prices for medium quality (typical) apartments in the secondary market of real estate by federal districts of RF in 2007-September 2012, rub./sq. m.

    29. Average prices for medium quality (typical) apartments in the secondary market of real estate by regions of RF in 2007-September 2012, rub./sq. m.

    30. Average prices for low-rank apartments in the secondary market of real estate by quarters in 2007-September 2012, rub./sq. m.

    31.Average prices for low-rank apartments in the secondary market of real estate by federal districts of RF in 2007-September 2012, rub./sq. m.

    32.Average prices for low-rank apartments in the secondary market of real estate by regions of RF in 2007-September 2012, rub./sq. m.

    33. Average prices for improved quality apartments in the secondary market of real estate by quarters in 2007-September 2012, rub./sq. m.

    34.Average prices for improved quality apartments in the secondary market of real estate by federal districts of RF in 2007-September 2012, rub./sq. m.

    35. Average prices for improved quality apartments in the secondary market of real estate by federal districts of RF in 2007-September 2012, rub./sq. m.

    36. Average prices for elite apartments in the secondary market of real estate by quarters in 2007-September 2012, rub./sq. m.

    37.Average prices for elite apartments in the secondary market of real estate by federal districts of RF in 2007-September 2012, rub./sq. m.

    38. Average prices for elite apartments in the secondary market of real estate by regions of RF in 2007-September 2012, rub./sq. m.

    39. Average actual price for construction of detached houses with no extensions, add-ons and built-in premises by types in 2007-2011, rub./sq. m.

    40. Average actual price for construction of detached houses with no extensions, add-ons and built-in premises by federal districts in 2007-2011, rub./sq. m.

    41. Average actual price for construction of detached houses with no extensions, add-ons and built-in premises by regions of RF in 2007-2011, rub./sq. m.

    42. Shareholders of “SU-155” CJSC

    43. Balance sheet of “SU-155” CJSC, ths. rub.

    44. Profit and loss statement of “SU-155” CJSC, ths. rub.

    45. Cash flow statement of “SU-155” CJSC, ths. rub.

    46. Dynamics of financial activity of “SU-155” CJSC

    47. Shareholders of “GROUP OF COMPANIES PIK” OJSC

    48. Balance sheet of “GROUP OF COMPANIES PIK” OJSC, ths. rub.

    49. Profit and loss statement of “GROUP OF COMPANIES PIK” OJSC, ths. rub.

    50. Cash flow statement of “GROUP OF COMPANIES PIK” OJSC, ths. rub.

    51. Dynamics of financial activity of “GROUP OF COMPANIES PIK” OJSC

    52. Shareholders of “MORTON-RSO” LLC

    53. Balance sheet of “MORTON-RSO” LLC, ths. rub.

    54. Profit and loss statement of “MORTON-RSO” LLC, ths. rub.

    55. Dynamics of financial activity of “MORTON-RSO” LLC

    56. Shareholders of “Glavstroy” OJSC

    57. Balance sheet of “Glavstroy” OJSC, ths. rub.

    58. Profit and loss statement of “Glavstroy” OJSC, ths. rub.

    59. Dynamics of financial activity of “Glavstroy” OJSC

    60. Shareholders of “DON-STROY INVEST” CJSC

    61. Balance sheet of “DON-STROY INVEST” CJSC, ths. rub.

    62. Profit and loss statement of “DON-STROY INVEST” CJSC, ths. rub.

    63. Dynamics of financial activity of “DON-STROY INVEST” CJSC

    64. Shareholders of “INTEKO” CJSC

    65. Balance sheet of “INTEKO” CJSC, ths. rub.

    66. Profit and loss statement of “INTEKO” CJSC, ths. rub.

    67. Cash flow statement of “INTEKO” CJSC, ths. rub.

    68. Dynamics of financial activity of “INTEKO” CJSC

    List of schemes:

    1.  Classification of residential real estate by territorial and administrative characteristics

    2. Classification of residential real estate by construction material

    3. Factors influencing the demand, offer and commercial value

Другие исследования по теме
Название исследования Цена, руб.
Рынок офисной и складской недвижимости. Москва и Санкт-Петербург (отраслевой мониторинг)

Регион: Россия

Дата выхода: 01.12.16

29 000
Жилищно-строительные кооперативы (отраслевой мониторинг)

Регион: Россия и страны СНГ

Дата выхода: 01.12.16

29 000
Аналитический обзор: Анализ рынка керамзита в РФ и Самарской области

Регион: Россия, Самарская область

Дата выхода: 28.06.16

27 500
Наиболее популярные концепции редевелопмента территорий в Российской Федерации

Регион: Россия

Дата выхода: 02.03.16

25 000
Инвестиционные проекты в инженерной инфраструктуре РФ: Сентябрь 2015 года

Регион: Россия

Дата выхода: 14.10.15

10 000
Актуальные исследования и бизнес-планы
  • Рынок строительства гражданских объектов. Текущая ситуация и прогноз
    МЕТОДОЛОГИЯ ПРОВЕДЕНИЯ ИССЛЕДОВАНИЯ. СПИСОК ГРАФИКОВ, ДИАГРАММ, ТАБЛИЦ И СХЕМ

    1.ОБЩЕЭКОНОМИЧЕСКОЕ ПОЛОЖЕНИЕ РОССИИ

    1.1. Население России

    Численность населения

    Крупнейшие города

    Уровень жизни населения

    Экономическая активность

    1.2. Экономическая ситуация

    Динамика развития экономики

    Стабильность государственного бюджета

    1.3. Положение России в мире

    Доля РФ в мировом населении

    2. ОПИСАНИЕ ОБЪЕКТА ИССЛЕДОВАНИЯ

    3. ОБЪЕМ ВВОДА ОБЪЕКТОВ ГРАЖДАНСКОГО НАЗНАЧЕНИЯ

    3.1. Структура ввода зданий жилого и нежилого назначения

    3.2. Объемы ввода нежилых зданий по типам

    3.3. Жилищное строительство

    3.4. Объекты коммерческой недвижимости

    Объем ввода торгово-офисной недвижимости по годам

    Ввод торгово-офисной недвижимости в федеральных округах и регионах РФ

    Объем ввода торгово-развлекательной недвижимости по годам

    Ввод торгово-развлекательной недвижимости в федеральных округах и регионах РФ

    3.5. Складская недвижимость

    Москва и Московская область

    3.6. Другие объекты гражданского строительства

    Здравоохранение и социальное обеспечение/*');/*]]>*/
  • Маркетинговое исследование и анализ рынка алюминиевого профиля в России, 2013 г.
    Компания MegaRеsearch предлагает вашему вниманию маркетинговое исследование и анализ рынка алюминиевого профиля в России за 2013 год. Алюминиевый профиль различают по назначению: • строительный и архитектурный; • транспортный; • электротехнический; • универсальный. В 2013 году произошло резкое сокращение производства первичного алюминия. Даже в 2009 году спад был менее глубоким. Согласно данным Росстата, снижение производства алюминия в 2013 году по сравнению с 2012 годом составило 10,5%. В рамках исследования предоставлен рейтинг лучших российских производителей и трейдеров черных и цветных металлов за 2 е полугодие 2013 года. Данный рейтинг составлен на основе анкет, полученных от покупателей металлопродукции, результатов опроса экспертов рынка металлов, комплексного анализа деятельности компаний. При определении лучших компаний учитывались следующие критерии: динамика развития бизнеса, объемы поставок, уровень сервисного обслуживания, качество продукции, надежность поставщика в части выполнения договорных обязательств в условиях кризиса. Пятерка лучших производителей алюминиевого проката: 1. Каменск-Уральский МЗ 2. и др. Пятерка лучших производителей алюминиевого профиля: 1. Татпроф, www.tatprof.ru И др. Десятка лучших металлоторговцев алюминиевого проката …
  • Real Estate Market Monitoring August 2013
    1. Residential real estate…………………………………………………..…. 3

    2. Office real estate ……………………………………….……….…. 5

    3. Retail real estate …………………………………………………... 7

    4. Hotel real estate ………..…………………………….……..… 9

    5. Countryside real estate …………………………………………..... 11
Навигация по разделу
  • Все отрасли

RuFirm.org - Информационный справочник фирм России, Казахстана и Украины

Поделиться в соц. сетях:


При использовании данных нашего сайта, указывайте ссылку на RuFirm.org.
© 2013–2016 RuFirm.org